Considered contemporary theocracies, Iran, Afghanistan and Vatican City give ultimate political authority to religious leaders whose goal is to provide direction according to religious law. In some Islamic countries, such as Pakistan, Algeria, Turkey, Egypt and Sudan, fundamentalist Muslims are pushing to move to a theocratic system of government.
Countries with a historical background in theocracy include China, Tibet, Zurich and the Byzantine Empire.
In the strict sense of the word, having a state religion is not sufficient grounds to deem a government as a theocracy. Given how few countries have a government that derives its power directly from a religious deity, modern scholars have taken to identifying a country as being a theocracy if there is an enforced state religion.