Democrats generally prefer laws and concepts oriented toward providing government services to the public, while Republicans favor free market solutions for public needs. Republicans favor low taxes and high military spending, while Democrats allow for reasonable tax increases and high public and education spending, according to Diffen.
Democrats generally are oriented toward social responsibility as a philosophy, while Republicans emphasize personal responsibility. Democrats are in favor of abortion, yet Republicans look to restrict or ban it completely. Democrats see Roe v. Wade as a triumph, but Republicans look to overturn it. Democrats champion a progressive income tax, and Republicans argue for a flat tax. Republicans and Democrats argue over how much to regulate industries. Democrats say that government regulation is necessary to protect the public, and Republicans claim that market regulations stunt job and market growth, as noted by Diffen.
In terms of health care, as of 2015, Republicans think that private companies are better equipped to serve patients, while Democrats favor universal health care. Democrats generally support the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and heartily support Medicare and Medicaid, but Republics don't support, or have specific issues with, these government programs. In terms of gay marriage, Democrats support the right to marry the same sex, while Republicans generally oppose it.