While it varies depending on your location and service provider, the most common way to check the number of the most recent caller is to dial *69 from your telephone. This method only reveals the most recent caller, however, and the service is not capable of going back further.
Additionally, some service providers charge a one-time fee for when this feature is utilized. Much like caller ID, the information used in this feature can be falsified by the originating party under certain circumstances. If the caller uses a blocking feature, such as *67, before calling, the *69 feature does not work either.