The bond order, which is the number of bonds between any two given atoms, is calculated using the formula: Bond order = (Bonding electrons - Anti-bonding electrons) / 2.The Lewis structures of atoms form the basis for calculating the bond order.Know More
The bond order of a molecule that has multiple Lewis structures is calculated as the average of these Lewis structures. For example, sulfur dioxide has three bonds: a single bond for sulfur oxide in one Lewis structure and a double bond for sulfur oxide in a different Lewis structure within the molecule. This gives a bond order of 1.5, which is the average value of the three bonds.
In molecular orbital theory, bond orders are calculated by assuming that a pair of electrons in a bonding molecular orbital form one bond while a pair of electrons in a non-bonding molecular orbital nullify the effect of one bond.
For example, the bonding molecular orbital of the oxygen molecule has eight valence electrons while the anti-bonding molecular orbital of the same molecule has four valence electrons. So, the bond order of the oxygen molecule can be calculated as follows:
Bond order = (Bonding electrons - Anti-bonding electrons) / 2
The major defining feature of metals is that electrons flow relatively freely between atoms in any object composed of two or more metal atoms, whereas electrons around nonmetals are more tightly bound to their respective nuclei or within individual chemical bonds. This results in other significant features of metal, particularly their high thermal and electrical conductivity. A large majority of known elements are metals.Full Answer >
Ionic bonds form between atoms that transfer electrons to one another. These bonds require at least one electron donor and one electron acceptor. During ionic bonding, a complete transfer of valence electrons takes place between atoms.Full Answer >
Coordinate covalent bonds, also known as coordinate links or semipolar bonds, are different from normal covalent bonds because both of the electrons that are shared by the bonded atoms originally come from the same atom. This contrasts with normal covalent bonds, in which each atom gives up one of the two electrons that form the shared electron pair.Full Answer >
Chemical bonds, which hold compounds together, are the interactions between the electrons of two or more atoms. An electron's atoms exist in layers or shells, and it is the electrons in the outermost layer that determine how the atom reacts. The ideal state for any atom is to have a full outer shell of electrons; atoms that already have a full outer shell are inert, meaning they do not react. Other atoms chemically bond by sharing, gaining or giving electrons to achieve a full outer shell.Full Answer >