The bond order, which is the number of bonds between any two given atoms, is calculated using the formula: Bond order = (Bonding electrons - Anti-bonding electrons) / 2.The Lewis structures of atoms form the basis for calculating the bond order.Continue Reading
The bond order of a molecule that has multiple Lewis structures is calculated as the average of these Lewis structures. For example, sulfur dioxide has three bonds: a single bond for sulfur oxide in one Lewis structure and a double bond for sulfur oxide in a different Lewis structure within the molecule. This gives a bond order of 1.5, which is the average value of the three bonds.
In molecular orbital theory, bond orders are calculated by assuming that a pair of electrons in a bonding molecular orbital form one bond while a pair of electrons in a non-bonding molecular orbital nullify the effect of one bond.
For example, the bonding molecular orbital of the oxygen molecule has eight valence electrons while the anti-bonding molecular orbital of the same molecule has four valence electrons. So, the bond order of the oxygen molecule can be calculated as follows:
Bond order = (Bonding electrons - Anti-bonding electrons) / 2
Atoms form bonds with other atoms because of the electrostatic attraction between positively-charged protons and negatively-charged electrons. When this force of attraction brings atoms together to form substances containing two or more atoms, the bond is called a chemical bond. There are many types of chemical bonds, but the three major, or primary, types are ionic, covalent and metallic.Full Answer >
The bonds that hold the atoms in metals together are often described as being built upon metal ions that are floating in a sea of electrons. This is because the electrons in the outer shells, or valence shells, of metals are loosely held. The valence electrons are free to move from one atom to another.Full Answer >
Ionic bonds form between atoms that transfer electrons to one another. These bonds require at least one electron donor and one electron acceptor. During ionic bonding, a complete transfer of valence electrons takes place between atoms.Full Answer >
Covalent bonds between atoms can be single, with two electrons shared; double, with four electrons shared; or triple bonds, with six electrons shared. The more electrons that are shared by two atoms, the stronger their bond is, with a triple bond, such as is found in nitrogen gas, requiring a great deal of energy to break. For single-element compounds like nitrogen gas, the type of bond tends to match the number, up to three, of electrons required to complete the neutral element's outer valence shell.Full Answer >