Critics of Internet voting do not believe that it is possible for the process to be secure and trustworthy. For example, computer viruses are possible problems. It is feasible that hackers could have the ability to alter candidate line-ups, switch votes and change log-ins on personal computers. If a virus interferes with votes at keyboards or screens, the voting process could be compromised.
Some forms of Internet voting require individuals to download and print ballots. After signing them, the forms are scanned and transmitted to election officials through email or fax. However, unencrypted email is defenseless against dedicated hackers. These hackers would not necessarily have to be working for political parties within the country. Other nations that believe they have a stake in an election are potential obstructionists.
A document trail is essential for Internet voting, but this is not a part of all online election models. Without a paper backup of each vote, audits and recounts are impossible.
Identity issues become a concern in Internet voting. Voters are likely to need a unique and secure online identify. Individuals must be granted anonymity, but there must also be some method of verifying votes in case challenges occur.
When online voting begins, the process itself is expected to be complex. Casting ballots and following up to be sure their votes were counted is likely to be too complicated for many voters.