The partition of India at the end of 350 years of British rule in 1947 resulted in riots, looting, murders and a flood of 15 million refugees. The division of the former British possession into the countries of Pakistan and India led to conflicts and boundary issues that have existed into the 21st century. India and Pakistan have been at war several times, and the issue of the possession of Kashmir remains unresolved.
The partition caused millions of refugees to pour across new borders into regions of the two new countries that were totally foreign to them. Both countries faced both ruined lands and economies at the start of their independence. The ideological differences between the Hindu and Muslim populations in colonial India led the British to believe that the two new countries should be divided along religious lines rather than regional ones.