Common categorizations of the 50 states include population and land area. Lists of the 50 states ranked by population and land area are readily available on the Internet.
The United States conducts a census every 10 years, in which it measures the population of each state, among other things. The last census was in 2010. The population of each state is available on the United States census website, called census.gov. As of now, the state with the largest population is California, and then one with the smallest is Wyoming.
The land area of each state obviously does not change, and all land areas have been measured. The largest state by land area is Alaska, and the smallest is Rhode Island. Population and area represent common ways to rank the 50 states.