The major types of soil found in India include black, saline, laterite, mountain, desert, alluvial, red, yellow and peat.. Soil is formed through weathering, erosion and deposition.
Soil is the uppermost portion of Earth's crust, typically a mixture of decayed organic materials and rock particles. Black soil, also known as "regur soil," is predominant in the Deccan and Madhya Pradesh plateaus of India. Saline soil is common in the lowlands of Orissa and Kerala, while laterite soil is found in Ratnagiri District and Malabar. Mountain soil is prevalent in the arid regions of northern India, while desert soil is found in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Alluvial soil is widely distributed in the northern grasslands of India; red and yellow soil in Manipur and Mizoram, and peat soil in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.