Germany's government is a parliamentary system with a democratic constitution based on a division of powers within a federal structure and protection of individual liberty. Executive power is exercised by the chancellor, while the duties of the president are mostly ceremonial. There is an independent federal judiciary that consists of a high court of justice, a constitutional court and separate courts with jurisdiction over financial, social, labor and administrative matters.
Officially known as the Federal Republic of Germany, or Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the nation consists of 16 constituent states, each retaining limited sovereignty. Germany is a member of both NATO and the EU. The euro is the official currency. With more than 80 million inhabitants, Germany is the most heavily populated nation in the EU.