Tundra is the primary biome of Antarctica. The tundra biome is characterized by extreme cold and a lack of vegetation, which is mostly reduced to dwarf shrubs, grasses, mosses and lichens. Tundra is also distinguished by low biodiversity, as almost no amphibians or reptiles can survive its temperatures.
Only two types of flowering plants can be found on Antarctica: the Antarctic hair grass and the Antarctic pearlwort. The Antarctic tundra has no large mammals in part due to its isolation. Sea birds and sea mammals compose most of the recognizable fauna of Antarctica. Human introduction of cats and rabbits has allowed some of the warmer islands to support these populations.