The seven states that are typically considered the Upper South in the United States are Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, West Virginia, Missouri, Tennessee and Arkansas. The Deep South consists of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, with specific regions of Texas, Florida, Tennessee and Arkansas occasionally included.
The South is a region in the U.S. defined not only for its location, but also for its shared history, customs and culture. Historically, the Upper South included these states because the economy was not as strongly based on plantations and slave labor as the one in the Deep South. These states did not secede as early as the Deep South and the states of Kentucky, Missouri and West Virginia chose to remain part of the Union. Occasionally, the border states of Maryland and Delaware are listed as part of the Upper South.
The U.S. Census Bureau includes 16 states in its definition of the South. However, the subcategories of southern states are not always based on state borders. The Mississippi embayment areas of Tennessee and Arkansas are sometimes listed as part of the Deep South, rather than Upper South. These states are also occasionally included, along with Mississippi, in the Mid-South region. Parts of east Texas and north-central Florida are often listed as part of the Deep South.