Some of the natural vegetation in Peru includes monocotyledons, dicotyledons, cushion plants such as Oxychloe andina, trees such as Buddleja coriacea and grasslands such as Blechnum loxense. Approximately 40 percent of the land in Peru is covered by the Andes Mountains. The rest of the country features the forests and jungles of the Amazon River region.
It is estimated that 21,462 species live in the country, with 5,855 endemic to Peru. One major ecoregion in Peru is the Central Andean Wet Puna region, which is found in the Andean Mountains of Peru and Bolivia. It has been estimated that between 1,000 and 1,500 vascular plants are found in this region of Peru. Monocotyledons comprise around 40 percent of the vegetation. The giant Puya raimondii plant grows near Huarez and is considered one of Peru's best known plants.
In the high-Andean wetlands, scientists discovered the Senecio sanmarcosensis plant, which was unknown before 2009. Cacti grow along the coast of Peru and in the Highlands. Other vegetation found in Peru includes orchids, moss, palm trees, canopy plants and ichu grass.