The official language of the Vatican City state is Italian, with Latin and French as secondary languages. Vatican City is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. Its area of 110 acres makes it the smallest independent state in the world.
Vatican City was founded in 1929 with the signing of the Lateran Pacts between the Holy See and Italy. It is governed as an absolute monarchy ruled by the pope. He is officially recognized as a head of state with full legislative, executive and judicial powers within his territory. Popes are elected by the College of Cardinals during conclaves that take place after the death or resignation of the reigning pope.