According to Wikipedia, Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world. It is inhabited by 2.5 million people, who survives by domesticating livestock and migrating to places with water and vegetation, as stated in Britannica Encyclopedia. There are also some groups who practice farming, particularly in areas where permanent vegetation is found.
Historically, people who thrived in the Sahara Desert were nomads who used camel to travel to the more life-sustaining parts of the desert, and to the centers of commerce in order to trade goods. Nothing much has changed, because according to WorldWildLife.org, Sahara's inhabitants, specifically the predominant Moors, Tuareg and Tibbu, are still nomadic pastoralists, as well as tradesmen. They trade clothes, livestock and animal products like skin, cheese and butter. They are also hunters who hunt desert mammals like fox, antelope and wild sheep for food. In addition, they hunt large birds that live in the desert.
A few inhabitants can be found in nearby oases, whose livelihood includes farming of dates and other plants. Peter Kenyon reports in NPR.org that the areas of the desert situated near the sea are inhabited by fisher-folks. In fact, the fishing industry, which hauls octopus and squids in these areas, is worth a million dollars.