The island of Newfoundland is situated at the mouth of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Atlantic Ocean off the northeastern coast of North America. Newfoundland joins mainland Labrador to form the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, neighbored by Quebec to the west and south.
The coast of Newfoundland is rocky and deeply indented, with much of the inland dominated by lakes and marshes. Roughly 92 percent of the province's estimated 514,000 inhabitants live on Newfoundland, many of them centered on the southeastern Avalon Peninsula around the capital of St. Johns. The second-smallest of the Canadian provinces, Newfoundland and Labrador covers roughly 144,000 square miles of land.