Kenya's main natural resources include fisheries, water, forests, wetlands, biodiversity and a variety of minerals. These minerals include limestone, gemstones, salt, zinc, gypsum, diatomite, limestone and others.
Kenya's natural resource base faces threats from socioeconomic activities, such as agriculture, commerce, tourism and human settlements. The country also faces water pollution from human-generated wastes, poaching and deforestation.The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides also results in poor water quality. Due to inadequate laws regarding the use of land and natural resources, Kenya has experienced poor resource and land management as well as land disputes that have led to inequity and widespread poverty.
The geography of Kenya is composed of low plains rising into highlands that give way to the Great Rift Valley. Kenya's two major rivers are the Tana and the Galana, and a fertile plateau lies on the west side of the country. Just over 1 percent of the land is occupied by permanent crops, but more than 9 percent is arable.
Kenya faces flooding during the rainy seasons as well as severe drought at other times of the year. There is also some volcanic activity, and most of the country's geology is dominated by rift tectonics along the Great Rift Valley.