Finding a location is as simple as checking signs or asking local people. Smartphones are widely available, and they typically come with GPS inside. With GPS, one can find an exact location on the globe.
Sometimes it is not possible to know a location easily. Being shipwrecked on a island or lost in the woods can become a problem. Take a map, compass or GPS device when adventuring into woods or mountains. This reduces the chance of becoming lost. If in a foreign country, it may be best to find someone who speaks one's language so that he can help.