Landforms on Prince Edward Island include rolling hills, sandy beaches, sand dunes and low bluffs made of red sandstone. Red sandstone, mixed with limestone, serves as hard bedrock for the island. The highest point is 470 feet above sea level in the Bonshaw Hills, and the smallest Canadian province is part of the Appalachian Region of North America.
Other geophysical characteristics of Prince Edward Island include a low basin, dozens of small rivers, acidic soils, occasional trees, numerous small bays and plenty of inlets. Prince Edward Island was formed around 3,000 B.C. when ocean levels rose to fill in the Northumberland Strait. The island became exposed after glacial ice retreated 10,000 years ago and left behind red sandstone deposits. This red sandstone is responsible for the reddish-brown hues of Prince Edward Island's soil.
Prince Edward Island is crescent-shaped, 140 miles long and between 4 and 40 miles wide. The southern coast is dotted with estuaries and deep bays that contain rivers. The northern coast is marked by rolling dunes and sandbars that inhibit coastal access to the island. At one time, three-fourths of the island was farmland, and potatoes are the main crop of the province as of September 2014.
The largest city and provincial capital is Charlottestown. The province is named for Edward Augustus, the son of King George III of England.