India has a very high population density because of social, economic and geographical factors. India's population is highly concentrated in areas with highly urbanized and industrialised sectors, as well as areas with high agricultural yields. With 18 million, the city of Mumbai is the most populated in India.
Topography is an important element in influencing the concentration of a population. Plain areas generally contain a higher population density, compared to mountain regions. Steep mountain slopes inhibit the ability to utilize the land for agriculture or to set up industry.
Climate extremes also tend to discourage the concentration of population. Such climates include the frigid temperatures of the Himalayas, and the scorching heat of the Thar Desert. A moderate climate is ideal for population segmentation. Access to water plays a crucial role in determining the population of a given area as well. Water is a basic utility that is needed for several purposes including irrigation and industry. Rivers are considered the greatest source of fresh water; therefore, most of the populations are located in river valleys. Industrial growth also offers enormous opportunities for employment and acts as a great incentive to draw people from the neighboring areas. This makes for a much higher population density.