The South Pole is the southernmost point on Earth's surface and is located in Antarctica at 90 degrees south latitude. Due to the extreme location of the South Pole, the sun shines 24 hours per day during the summer and is never visible during the winter.
Scientists who specialize in areas such as astronomy and meteorology work at a research facility near the South Pole. Atmospheric levels of trace gases and solar radiation levels are studied over time, providing data that is useful to climate scientists. Ozone depletion in Antarctica is also studied from the South Pole and involves the use of balloons that are launched from a specialized facility.