Because of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost 13 percent of its land (which amounted to 25,000 square miles) and had to give back the territory it had gained during World War I. Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Czechoslovakia became independent countries. Austria-Hungary split up and Yugoslavia was created.
France regained Alsace-Lorraine from Germany, which had captured the area in 1870. France also took control of the Saar, an important German coalfield, for 15 years. All of Germany's and Turkey's colonies were taken away from the two countries and put under Allied control. The Treaty of Versailles failed to solve the political problems in Europe effectively enough to prevent World War II.