Excluding a brief Italian occupation that lasted from 1936 to 1941, Ethiopia holds the distinction of being the only African country that was not subjected under colonial rule. Throughout its long historical existence that is said to date back about 2,000 years ago, Ethiopia remains the oldest independent African nation and one of the most ancient civilizations in the world.
Ethiopia, formerly known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked country located in eastern Africa in the western section of Somalia. Italy initially attempted to colonize the nation in the 1890s but was defeated under Menelik II in the Battle of Adwa in 1896.
In 1936, the Italians launched another invasion against Ethiopia, and this time successfully occupied the country. The Ethiopian empire was then merged with Eritrea and Somaliland, establishing the Italian East African colony. Five years later, however, British troops forced the Italians to leave Ethiopia.