Various fiber crops, cereals, sugar, legumes, fruits and vegetables are grown in Egypt. The agricultural area of Egypt is contained to regions near the Nile and its delta. Other than available land, the biggest challenges to growing crops in Egypt are disease-carrying pests.
Egyptian crops increased by 20 percent in the decade between 2004 and 2014. Cotton is the biggest fiber crop and the leading export. Wheat and rice, also popular exports, are successful cereal crops grown there. Sugar cane, sugar beets, a variety of beans, clover, oranges, grapes, stone fruit, pome fruits, tomatoes and potatoes are also grown. The Egyptian climate is sunny and therefore conducive to growing these crops, and the Nile River is an exceptional source of water, as the soil near the Nile is generally of excellent quality.
The biggest obstacle to growing crops in Egypt are the pests; diseased microorganisms are a well-known hazard in agriculture there. Nematodes, or roundworms, are also a big problem, so nematicides are imported regularly to try to improve the crop yield. Root-knot is the major problem in greenhouse cultures and commercial nurseries, where high-value crops are grown in relatively small areas. To increase the amount of land that can be farmed, Egypt has had to build irrigation systems that extend out from the Nile. Only 3 percent of Egyptian land can currently support agriculture.