Qatar borders Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Qatar also sits directly across the Persian Gulf from Iran. In the late 20th century, Qatar had border disputes with Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Qatar resolved its border dispute with Saudi Arabia in 1992 and the International Court of Justice awarded the Hawar Islands to Bahrain in 2001.
With an area of 4,416 square miles, Qatar is slightly smaller than Connecticut. The country forms a peninsula that sticks about 100 miles north into the Persian Gulf. Qatar is linked to Saudi Arabia by the Trans-Arabia Highway and also has road links to the United Arab Emirates and Oman, which is further to the south. Despite the previous border disputes, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are all part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which also includes Kuwait and Oman.
Qatar's capital is Doha, which sits on the east side of the peninsula. Qatar's terrain is flat, sandy and sparsely vegetated. Qatar's climate is extremely hot. Average temperatures reach 108 degrees Fahrenheit in June.
The sheiks of Bahrain controlled all of Qatar until the late 19th century, when Qatar rebelled. The British negotiated a peace between Bahrain and Qatar, confirming Qatar as a separate country. Qatar was once a poor country, as most of the land it controls is desolate. However, mineral explorers found oil in the mid-20th century, which brought a huge amount of wealth into the country.