The Iberian Peninsula is made up of the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain, in addition to a small piece of France and the British territory of Gibraltar. The most widely spoken languages are Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Galician and Basque. The Iberian Peninsula is the third-largest peninsula in Europe, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Pyrenees Mountains.
Over the course of its history, the Iberian Peninsula has been ruled by the Romans, Germanic tribes and Muslims. Roman troops under Augustus invaded the peninsula in the third century and named it Hispania. Germanic tribes occupied the area in the fifth century. Their rule gave way to the Muslims in the eighth century.
In modern times, Spain occupies most of the peninsula, while Portugal occupies the western portion. French Cerdagne sits just south of the Pyrenees, and Gibraltar is located at the southern tip of Spain. Andorra lies between France and Spain and is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe.
The peninsula's largest cities by population are all in Spain: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Seville. The largest city outside of Spain is Lisbon, Portugal. Approximately 56 million people call the Iberian Peninsula home, as of 2014.