According to the Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook, seven countries have a claim on Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the UK. The U.S. and Russia have reserved the right to make claims, and the U.S. does not recognize the claims of the other countries. A claim means that a country is claiming part of Antarctica as national territory.
Antarctica is managed through a treaty system that came into force in 1961 — decisions are made by consensus and not by vote. Antarctica is not to be used as a military base, and the treaty focuses mainly on conservation issues.
Research stations are maintained in Antarctica by 29 nations — all signatories to the Antarctica Treaty — and the population ranges from 1,100 in winter to 4,400 in summer with an additional 1,000 staff based in the nearby ocean.