Ecuador shares a 440-mile border with Colombia to the north and a 950-mile border with Peru to the east and south. It also has a 1,390-mile coastline on the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The exact delineation of Ecuador's border with Peru caused the longest-running international armed conflict in the Western Hemisphere. The dispute began in 1821, when Peru and Gran Colombia, which included Ecuador, declared independence from Spain. It lasted until Oct. 26, 1998, when both countries agreed to a set of borders that they formally drew up beginning on May 13, 1999. Ecuador's northern border with Colombia has also been contentious. In 2008, members of the Colombian military pursued anti-government militants into Ecuador, causing a diplomatic crisis.