Constantinople was located on an elevated rocky peninsula and was surrounded by the Golden Horn estuary to the North, the Bosporus straits to the East and the Sea of Marmara to the South. Constantinople sat along the land route between Europe and Asia.
The city was established in 324 A.D. by Emperor Constantinople of the Roman Empire. The site chosen was already home to the city of Byzantium, which was established between 671 and 662 B.C. Constantinople later became the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. After the transition between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the city was renamed Istanbul.