The climate of Iran is typically hot and arid with a long summer season and a short winter. The majority of precipitation occurs in the colder months with very little rainfall in the summer.
Average temperatures in Iran range from about 5 degrees Celsius in January to approximately 30 degrees Celsius in August. On the humid south coast, near the Persian Gulf, temperatures can soar above 40 degrees Celsius in the summertime. In the northern mountains, temperatures can drop below freezing.
The majority of precipitation for the country falls from November to March with scarce rainfall, if any, during the summer in arid areas. Precipitation varies from year to year, but typically occurs in concentrated events throughout the country. Sometimes this results in intense storms that bring flooding and subsequent erosion.
Despite these trends, anomalous climatological patterns occur in discrete areas. A small northern area along the Caspian coast exhibits a milder climate. In this locale, rainfall occurs throughout the year, but is concentrated from late summer to the middle of winter. Also, the elevation of the northern mountains results in cooler than average temperatures and snowfall during colder months. However, the general lack of precipitation throughout the country results in virtually unceasing sunshine for the majority of the year.