The Canadian equivalent of a tourist visa is the visitor's visa, for which the Canadian government provides an online application tool at CIC.GC.ca. Applicants may also apply in person with a paper application at Visa Application Centers around the world.
If applying with a paper application, be aware that Visa Application Centers are not located in normal Canadian embassies or consulates. Private organizations run VACs under license to the Canadian government. Applications that require biometric identification must be done in person or online, instead of through the mail.
Countries not requiring a visitor visa for short stays in Canada include the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, most European countries and many Caribbean countries. Keep in mind that the Canadian government requires visitors from some non-visa countries to provide specific types of passports, such as biometric passports. All visitors to Canada, even those not requiring a visitor's visa, need to show a passport upon entering the country.
Canadian visitor visas require payment of an application fee. Additionally, the private organizations that run VACs generally charge an extra fee on top of the Canadian government's fee. Most areas require the fee to be paid in Canadian dollars. Use the Canadian government website to find the closest VAC in your country.