The largest landform region in Canada is the Canadian Shield. The Canadian Shield covers a large land area, stretching from the Western coast of Canada through the Interior Plains, the East coast and into the Hudson Bay. This landform includes nearly eight million miles of land, and extends into the United States and Greenland as well.
The Canadian Shield, comprised of rocks nearly four billion years old, ranks among the oldest and largest geological landforms on Earth. Its layers of sedimentary deposit include igneous rock and metamorphic rock. Minerals and gems exist in the Canadian Shield too, and even support local mining operations. In addition to igneous and metamorphic rock, the Canadian Shield contains a massive reserve created from ancient Precambrian rock. Past cycles of erosion and accretion shaped the Canadian Shield's surface into a complex and undulating landscape. It contains hills and jagged peaks, formed from volcanic eruptions and movement of tectonic plates. The Canadian Shield derived some surface shape from glacial activity too. Glaciers, moving southward, left rounded hills, basins, lakes and reservoirs. In addition to the Canadian Shield, Canada contains other distinct landform regions. The Cordillera Mountains, Interior Plains, Great Lakes, Appalachian and Arctic regions exist in Canada as well. Together, these land areas give Canada a distinct and diverse shape.