Ancient Mesopotamia occupied the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and most of what is now Iraq. It also extended to parts of what are now Iran, Syria and Turkey. It was bordered by the Zagros Mountains to the northeast and the Arabian Plateau in the southeast.
Mesopotamia was not a unified nation, but more of a collection of empires that shared writing systems and similar philosophic and religious views. Mesopotamia is credited with the development of writing, the wheel, animal domestication, agriculture and irrigation. Because of the region's many discoveries, inventions and ability to successfully govern itself, it is widely considered the origin of modern civilization.