The 10 highest mountains in Europe measured in meters are Elbrus (5,642), Rustaveli (5,201), Dykh-Tau (5,198), Kazbek (5,047), Mont Bianco/Mont Blanc (4,807), Klyuchevskaya (4,750), Ushba (4,710), Monte Rosa (4,634), Dom (4,545) and the Matterhorn/Cervino (4,479). Measurements are approximate since variations occur according to seasonal depths of snow and ice.
Four of these mountains, Rustaveli, Dykh-Tau, Kazbek and Ushba, are located in the Caucus Mountains of Georgia. Elbrus and Klyuchevskaya are in Russia. Italy and France share Monte Bianco/Mont Blanc. Italy and Switzerland share Monte Rosa and the Matterhorn, and Dom is in Switzerland.
Shkhara, a peak in the Caucus Mountain Range, is said to be the highest point in the country of Georgia. Measurements of mountains and peaks differ. Height is measured from sea level, but the prominence or “tallness” of a mountain is measured from its base, even if the base is under water.
Before GPS devices were available, geologists and cartographers used trigonometry and high-powered protractors called theodolites and transits to measure the height of mountains. An observer standing at a known distance away from a mountain and figuring out the angle from where he is on the ground to the peak can calculate the peak’s height. Scientists make more exact measurements by placing a GPS receiver on the peak and measuring the time it takes for radio signals to travel between the receiver and orbiting satellites.