Super fine flour is flour that has been ground to a light powder. Fine flour makes lighter, airier batters, and it improves texture in breads and desserts that require flour. It also yields a finer crumb.
Super fine flour often appears on supermarket shelves as super fine cake flour, "00" pasta flour or some other form of super fine flour. For example, alternative flours made from chickpeas, fava beans, almonds and rice are also available in finely ground varieties that are labeled as super fine. When used to make pasta, super fine flour results in smooth, silky noodles.
Wheat flour is primarily the ground endosperm of the wheat plant. The endosperm, germ and bran comprise the wheat kernel. Commercial grain millers may combine tiny amounts of ground germ and bran with the finished product so as to adjust the protein, or gluten, to a level consistent with certain uses.
There are six different types of wheat. Harder varieties tend to have more gluten, and wheat varieties that have less gluten usually end up as cake flour, which is typically ground very fine. Cake flour's fineness and low gluten content contribute density to baked goods without imparting toughness. Cake flour is useful in fine breading and for making roux, flour-based white sauces and boiled icing.
Conversely, "00" pasta flour is typically finely ground, but it is made from durum semolina, one of the heartier varieties of wheat. Its use results in a malleable, supple dough that also has a robust structure from the gluten developed through kneading or mixing.