Some spice substitutions include cinnamon or nutmeg for allspice, fennel seed for aniseed, ginger for cardamom, saffron for turmeric, and chili powder for cumin. Cinnamon can be a substitute for allspice, cloves, ginger, mace and nutmeg.
For pumpkin pie spice, substitute 1/2 part of ground cinnamon, 1/4 part of ground ginger, 1/4 part of ground allspice and 1/8 part of ground nutmeg. For instance, 2 teaspoons of pumpkin pie spice requires 1 teaspoon of ground cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon each of ground ginger and allspice and 1/4 teaspoon of ground nutmeg. Similarly, use 1/2 part of ground cinnamon, 1/4 part of ground nutmeg, 1/8 part ground allspice and a dash of ground ginger or cloves instead of apple pie spice.
Substitute ground ginger with an equal amount of ground mace, nutmeg, allspice or cinnamon, and use 1/4 teaspoon of ground ginger for 1 teaspoon of grated ginger root. Mace, nutmeg, allspice and cinnamon can be substituted for one another, but if substituting for cinnamon, use 1/4 the amount of either nutmeg or allspice.
Use a mixture of 1 teaspoon each of coriander and crushed red pepper, 1/4 teaspoon of salt, 1/4 teaspoon of ground ginger, 1/4 teaspoon of garlic powder and 1/4 teaspoon of onion powder for 1 tablespoon of Thai seasoning.