One recipe for turkey soup using the bones requires boiling the carcass in water with salt, pepper, poultry seasoning and a bay leaf, creating a stock. Strain the stock, and remove the bones and meat. Discard the bones and bay leaf, and cut the meat into bite-sized cubes for use in the soup.
Once the turkey is carved and most of the meat removed from the carcass, break it into pieces so it fits into a stock pot. Add 3 quarts of water, a bay leaf, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon of pepper and 1/4 teaspoon of poultry seasoning. Bring the pot to a boil, and cook the stock for 1 1/2 hours. Skim the residue that rises to the top of the stock as it cooks. Turn off the heat, and allow the stock to cool for sorting meat and bones.
Allow the stock to sit until the fat rises to the top. Remove the fat, and discard it. Stir in the meat collected from the bones and 1/2 cup of pearl barley. Bring the stock to a boil, and reduce the heat to a simmer. Cover the pot, and simmer for 30 minutes. Add 1 1/2 cups of sliced carrots, 1 cup of chopped onion and 1 cup of diced celery to the soup, and cook an additional 25 to 30 minutes until all the ingredients are tender.