Sugar, or granulated sucrose, is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline powder that usually comes from a cane sugar or sugar beet. It is also called table sugar and is used as a sweetener in food.
After it is extracted, sucrose is purified and crystallized before being ready for use in recipes such as desserts and candies. This carbohydrate is useful for its sweet taste and structural properties. Chemically, sucrose is a disaccharide made of fructose and glucose, which are both monosaccharides.
Sucrose can be melted into caramel, in which it forms a noncrystalline structure. It also breaks down into carbon, carbon dioxide and water to be rapidly metabolized by the body.
Other types of sugar include galactose, maltose, ribose and xylose. All of them have sweetening and tenderizing properties.