A peperoncino is a spicy chili pepper that is one of 85 varieties of Capsicum annuum, one of the five domesticated hot pepper species. This small pepper is very rich in capsaicin, which causes the spiciness of hot peppers.
According to Academia Barilla, the name of this pepper varies based on its region of Italy. For example, in Calabria, it is called "diavulillo," but in Sicily, it is "pipi russi." Peperoncinos are especially popular in the rustic cooking style of southern Italy. WebMD reports that capsaicin aids digestion, decreases pain and improves skin conditions, such as psoriasis, because it affects the transmission of pain signals.