Pearl couscous, also known as Israeli couscous, is a type of toasted pasta that's shaped like rice or small, dense balls. This whole grain-like food is made from wheat flour or semolina, which is purified wheat middlings of durum wheat.
This type of pasta is a wheat-based substitute for rice invented by the Osem food company in Israel, during the austerity period. Pearl couscous is commonly made from roasted hard wheat-flour. This type of pasta is used in both hot and cold dishes, it retains its shape and texture and doesn't clump together when it's reheated. The size of the pasta gives it a chewy texture and the roasting process adds a nutty flavour.