LiveScience reports that a single medium-sized potato weighing 5.3 ounces contains 110 calories, 620 milligrams of potassium, 26 grams of carbohydrates and 3 grams of protein. Potatoes also contain healthy amounts of vitamin C and B6 as well as small amounts of calcium and iron.
Potatoes generally carry higher levels of potassium than bananas, which are commonly cited as a high-potassium food. The potato's skin includes most of its potassium content, so recipes that require the removal of skin do not provide the vasodilatory benefits that potassium offers.
With their high fiber content, potatoes also aid digestion. Their high levels of carbohydrates also make them easier to digest than many foods.
The vitamin B6 found in potatoes plays a key role in the healthy functioning of the brain and nervous system. The production of the brain chemicals serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine requires the vitamin, which may help those suffering from depression and stress.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has found that potatoes contain phytonutrients, organic plant materials that the organization believes promote good health. The organization has also found a connection between potato consumption and heart health but warns that the high carbohydrate content can lead to weight gain. This presents issues for those prone to obesity and those suffering from diabetes.