The main difference between red and green New Mexico chili peppers is the time they are allowed to grow before they are harvested. They both start out green, and those that are not harvested while green turn red as they ripen. The red ones are sometimes roasted but more often ground into chili powder.
Most Mexican restaurants in New Mexico give customers a choice when it comes to having either red or green chili sauce come with their meal. The sauce is often poured over chili rellenos and enchiladas.
New Mexico chili peppers are closely related to Anaheim chili peppers and are sometimes mistakenly referred to as poblano chili peppers in other areas of the United States.