Roasting a whole cauliflower usually takes around 45 minutes in an oven heated to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. When done, the cauliflower should appear golden around the edges, and the inside should be tender when poked with a knife.
To make a basic whole roasted cauliflower, remove the leaves from the cauliflower. Coat the cauliflower with olive oil, salt and pepper, and roast on a baking sheet lined with foil.
To add a Mediterranean flavor, pulse 1 1/2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil, 1 1/2 tablespoons of coarsely chopped fresh basil and 4 olives in a food processor until the olives and basil are chopped. Use a brush to spread the olive oil mixture over the cauliflower. During the last 15 minutes of roasting, sprinkle 1 tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese over the cauliflower.