Traditional egg salad includes hard-cooked eggs, mayonnaise, mustard, minced onion and celery. It also includes spices, which vary depending on the recipe, but can include paprika, salt and black pepper. In its simplest variation, egg salad includes only egg and mayonnaise, making it "egg mayonnaise."
Olivier salad is a traditional Russian variant of egg salad that includes potatoes, carrots, apples, dill pickles and peas in addition to eggs. Other common ingredients in Olivier salad include chicken, ham or bologna sausage. Like Western egg salad, Olivier salad includes salt, black pepper, mustard and mayonnaise. It also includes diced onion and celery or celeriac.
While traditional egg salad includes simple ingredients, variations include other seasonings and cold foods to add texture and flavor. Martha Stewart's classic egg salad recipe includes hot sauce and Dijon mustard instead of plain mustard. Additions for extra crunch include pickles, cucumbers, bell peppers and relish, while some may add bacon, ham or turkey as a second protein. To make a salad that's more substantial, add cubed cheese and capers.
Other close relatives of egg salad include ham salad, chicken salad, tuna salad, crab salad and lobster salad. These salads all have a common foundation of mayonnaise, salt, black pepper, mustard and diced aromatics. They typically appear as sandwich fillings or as a topping for leafy salads.