According to the Martha Stewart website, blue cheese is a general category of cheese that features blue or blue-green veins and spots created through an aging process with the mold Penicillium, while Gorgonzola is a specific variety within the spectrum of blue cheeses. Roquefort and Stilton are other popular examples found in the blue cheese family.
Gorgonzola cheese hails from Northern Italy and was first produced in A.D. 879 in the namesake town of Gorgonzola. The cheese has a pungent, salty taste and, according to the website Diffen, has a more crumbly texture than other blue cheeses. Rods are inserted several times during the aging process to transfer the mold that develops the signature blue-green striped appearance and unique flavor.
Blue cheese, including Gorgonzola, is aged anywhere from two to three months and occasionally as long as six months. The longer the cheese ages, the stronger the flavor and aroma become. In cheese shops, younger batches are sold as Gorgonzola dolce, and cheeses aged longer are called Gorgonzola naturale or Gorgonzola piccante. According to CookingLight, the type of milk used in the making of cheese will affect the flavor. Goat's milk, sheep's milk and cow's milk can all be used to make different types of blue cheese.