Some single-ingredient spice substitutions made in home cooking are fennel seed or anise extract for aniseed, ginger for cardamom and chili powder for cumin. These replacements taste slightly different from the original seasoning and cooks start with half the amount called for and adjust based on taste.
Some seasonings are substituted by mixing a combination of spices to achieve the color and taste of the original ingredient. An allspice substitution is cinnamon and cassia with a dash of nutmeg, mace or cloves. Cinnamon mixed with either ginger or mace is a substitute for nutmeg. A dash of liquid hot sauce combined with oregano and cumin can replace chili powder.