Coffee beans grow between 30 degrees south of the Equator and 28 degrees north of the Equator, essentially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Coffee is grown in significant quantities in Central America, Brazil, the Caribbean, West Africa, East Africa, Yemen, Madagascar, Indonesia, Vietnam and India. The coffee plant thrives in a variety of soils, from alluvial to volcanic.
Coffee plantation workers usually plant seeds in large beds in nurseries located in plenty of shade. Once the seedlings sprout, they remove them and plant them in individual pots, continuing to water them and keep them in shade until they are mature enough to be permanently planted in the ground. Typically, plantation workers transplant seedlings into the ground during the rainy season so that the seedlings' roots have damp soil in which to become securely established.
The two primary types of coffee plants are Arabica and Robusta. Arabica grows well in temperatures of 15 to 24 degrees Celsius with about 1,500 to 3,000 millimeters of annual rain, while Robusta is able to endure hotter, drier conditions. Arabica thrives at relatively high altitudes, while Robusta is able to grow from sea level up to about 800 meters above sea level.