It is possible to get sick by eating raw potatoes if the potatoes contain bacteria, such as E. coli, listeria or salmonella. The consumption of raw potatoes on a regular basis can lead to toxic alkaloid levels in the body, which can lead to vomiting, cramping, headaches, respiratory issues and even death.
Raw, uncooked potatoes are more difficult for a person's digestive system to break down. If the potatoes are not broken down before they pass through the digestive system, a person can experience pain, bloating, nausea and abdominal discomfort. Properly cooking potatoes will kill any existing bacteria and will also lower the level of alkaloids to less than toxic levels, which will reduce the chances of getting sick substantially.