The only ingredient in baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It is also known as bicarbonate of soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbonic acid or sodium acid carbonate, according to PubChem.
Baking soda is commonly found in recipes for baked goods. When it is mixed with moisture and an acidic ingredient such as molasses, chocolate or honey, the chemical reaction produces carbon dioxide. This gives baked goods a light, airy texture. Sodium bicarbonate is also used for medicinal purposes. It is a common ingredient in antacid products. Drinking a mixture of 1 teaspoon of baking soda in 8 ounces of water reduces stomach acid and relieves heartburn.