A monograph draws on primary sources in order to present original scholarship. It is an in-depth treatment of a single subject written by a specialist in the field, generally intended for an academic audience.
Tenure-track university faculty are expected to publish monographs over the course of their careers. They are primarily purchased by libraries and written for other professional or amateur researchers. Different subjects have different standards for monographs. For example, an artist monograph contains reproductions of art done by a single artist. Biology monographs comprehensively study one taxon, add newly discovered species, assign a taxonomic rank and present relevant ecological and geographical information.