The word "abstract" can be used as a noun, verb and adjective depending its meaning and context. The sentence "The researchers found more ways to pose abstract questions" uses abstract as an adjective, meaning theoretical, not practical or not concrete.
The sentence "Learning how to abstract data in the computing world can be very beneficial" uses abstract as a verb, meaning to remove, extract or isolate. The sentence "Read their abstract of the summary below" uses abstract as a noun, meaning a summary of a text. When abstract is used as a noun, it can also be taken to mean a work of art.